Saturday, March 14, 2020

Free Essays on New At School

Arriving at Canisius College in late August was a mind blowing experience. The unfamiliar situation which I was in was so familiar to me when I arrived. It’s the feeling I got when I started my first day of pre-school. Every face belonged to a stranger and every voice seemed foreign to my ears. All I could tell myself was that I knew that things would get better, just give it time. My situation has changed for the most part; the familiar feeling has started to fade. The experiences I’ve gone through have changed my attitude about my current situation. I remember waking that day; my first day of college, knowing my life would never be the same. I lay in bed thinking about every bad thing that could happen to me. The crimes, the drugs, and the busy streets kept rushing through my head. After procrastinating as long as I could, I got out of bed, gathered my belongings and placed them in my car. I then proceeded to do something I had been dreading all summer. I went back in the house to say goodbye to my family. The first one I said goodbye to was my dog. She’s a big fat dog with a wrinkled face that spends most of her time lying around the house and eating. The look on her face was so casual. Realistically I knew she didn’t know what was happening, but I told myself that she didn’t want me to go. My brothers and sisters were moderately disappointed. I could see that they would miss me at first, but tomorrow would be as normal as a day as any other. My Mom, on the other hand, couldn’t stop the tears from coming. She hugged me and told me how much she would miss me. I tried to leave before she could see how close I was to breaking down as well. I jumped in my car, turned the ignition and backed out the drive way. I tried so hard not to look back but my mind became flooded with friends, good times I was leaving behind, and not making the grade. Both of my parents are college graduates and spend a lot ... Free Essays on New At School Free Essays on New At School Arriving at Canisius College in late August was a mind blowing experience. The unfamiliar situation which I was in was so familiar to me when I arrived. It’s the feeling I got when I started my first day of pre-school. Every face belonged to a stranger and every voice seemed foreign to my ears. All I could tell myself was that I knew that things would get better, just give it time. My situation has changed for the most part; the familiar feeling has started to fade. The experiences I’ve gone through have changed my attitude about my current situation. I remember waking that day; my first day of college, knowing my life would never be the same. I lay in bed thinking about every bad thing that could happen to me. The crimes, the drugs, and the busy streets kept rushing through my head. After procrastinating as long as I could, I got out of bed, gathered my belongings and placed them in my car. I then proceeded to do something I had been dreading all summer. I went back in the house to say goodbye to my family. The first one I said goodbye to was my dog. She’s a big fat dog with a wrinkled face that spends most of her time lying around the house and eating. The look on her face was so casual. Realistically I knew she didn’t know what was happening, but I told myself that she didn’t want me to go. My brothers and sisters were moderately disappointed. I could see that they would miss me at first, but tomorrow would be as normal as a day as any other. My Mom, on the other hand, couldn’t stop the tears from coming. She hugged me and told me how much she would miss me. I tried to leave before she could see how close I was to breaking down as well. I jumped in my car, turned the ignition and backed out the drive way. I tried so hard not to look back but my mind became flooded with friends, good times I was leaving behind, and not making the grade. Both of my parents are college graduates and spend a lot ...

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Marketing Report Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Marketing Report - Research Paper Example By the fifth year, the company should have gained 27,500 customers (5500 *11), resulting in a total of about 77,500 clients. 2. Gain a 15% market share in the STEM toy segment for CircuitTree by 2020. At the moment, Mega Brands has an 8% market share in the STEM category, while Lego has a 5% market share in the same category; this totals to 13% for the two leading brands. Other smaller brands have a total market share of 16%, meaning 71% of the market is still unexploited. A 15% market share means that Voltree will have 76,819 (0.15*512129) customers by 2020. This is closer to its target of a 77,500 customer base within 5 years. 3. Retain 50% of customers gained within the first five years of operation. Currently, CircuitTree is Voltree’s only product, yet STEM toys market data shows that parents between the ages of 25 and 34 perform multiple purchases every year. However, the probability of a parent buying more than one game is 0.5%, because half of them are likely to acquire other games in their next purchase. CircuitTree supports learning and entertainment in a sustainable and balanced manner. Technical and educational practitioners who understand the correlation between entertainment and learning developed the product after intensive research. The Core Product is what consumers pay for. In this case, entertainment and learning are combined into one product: a game that will improve children’s academic potential but still keep them animated. This element comprises the actual physical or virtual features of CircuitTree. The product is imaginative, inspiring, and incorporates high-quality design and styling. It also comes with latest software updates that support long-term usage. The branding, packaging and labeling aspects of CircuitTree are congruent with the company’s strategic objectives. For example, the packaging (both primary and secondary) is environmentally friendly while the labeling is explicit and multilingual to

Monday, February 10, 2020

BUSINESS LAW Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

BUSINESS LAW - Essay Example Analyzing this movie from ethical perspective, it is clear that most of the crises were because of unacknowledged conflict of interest, arrogance, greed, lack of transparency and accountability, failed leadership and unethical conducts. These factors are some of the issues that fueled the industry to become out of control. According to the Inside Job, Ferguson clearly indicates the manner in which these practices caused the 2008 economic meltdown. While obviously everyone knows the conclusion of the unfolding occasions Ferguson depicts, his meetings with a number of the players in the emergency give extra knowledge into the bigger inquiry on the manner in which such a variety of brilliant individuals were included in a disappointment, so colossal failure that led to economic crisis. The film demonstrates the results when supposed capital is wrapped around the unyielding quest for a dogma, for this situation deregulation, with the goal that clashing information or restricting perspect ives are not permitted to impede. The many people from Ivy League commercial concerns divisions wielded a ton of force in the 30-year impetus for deregulation. They served as advisors to the business and were chosen for significant administrative or White House consultant positions. Ferguson brings up issues about the objectivity of those who were entitled with research, and in addition whether their trustworthiness was bargained by the issues of investment and tolerating expenses from Wall Street. For example, Scott Talbott, boss lobbyist for the Financial Services Roundtable, which campaigns for the main 100 banks, and Mastercard, fortification and monetary administrations, includes a huge number of the rescued banks. As noted in Ferguson’s inquiries, it clearly demonstrates there was satisfied with the impressive impact his group wielded in Congress since that is the manner of how

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Technology and Business Essay Example for Free

Technology and Business Essay Introduction If there is something that differentiates businesses all over the world before and after the Second World War, it is technology. Today, it is virtually impossible to create or find an industry untouched by even the simplest form of technology. Companies as big as software makers and even those as small as fund-raising charities utilize computers and other innovations to make work more organized, easier, and efficient. Thus, it can be said that rewinding to the time when technology is not yet popular in organizations is next to impossible. With the benefits that technology brings, it is not unusual to think that it also affects the way in which organizations behave. The direct access of many corporate individuals to computing machines and other technology shapes their perception and execution of work. Collectively, these perceptions and work executions make up the business culture that can affect and even change the organization tremendously. While it can be agreed that technology indeed changes the character of organizations, still there are two sides of contention. One is how the so-called organizational character has changed, if it had, and how it is still changing now. Secondly, it is important to note if the changes are towards a more positive organization, or otherwise. In discussing so it will be beneficial to point out the different issues surrounding the change that technology has brought about to companies and their cultures. Ultimately, there is an aim to find out how decision makers are affected by these character changes in organizations as brought about by technology. How technology is changing businesses To begin with, it can be argumentative to say that technology is changing the way organizations behave. Kraar L (1997) states that business cultures are changing in the same way that technological frameworks in companies are changing. Morrison J (1995) further claims that technology is unavoidable. However, merely expressing these claims do not show that the change is really happening, and how it is happening. A little history According to Craiger JP (2006), technology and business met halfway through two paradigm shifts. In the beginning, computers were purely of military use, mostly to study firing trajectories and strategize entry points to field battles. It was in the 1950s that computers were introduced for business use. At this time computers were big, called mainframe computers, and complex that they needed special skill and know-how to be operated. Computers and skilled operators were isolated in a computer room were all of the computer processes were done. At the same period, the era post World War II, there was a drastic improvement in the lives of people and there were more white collar jobs than ever. It followed that more white collar workers were hired, and these opened to more people being exposed into the technologically changing workplace. Still, however, computers were reserved for those who know how to use them. Because of this, employees who are not directly in touch with the new technology that their companies were adapting did not feel the importance or the effects that technology brought to their companies. Even managers did not feel the essence of technology in their day-to-day work life. It was only in the 1980s when more members of organizations have been given access to the new technology, thanks to the development of stand-alone computers by IBM. Through these smaller computers, managers and employees were able to appreciate the new technology that businesses have been clamoring about. (Craiger JP 2006).

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Free Yellow Wallpaper Essays: National Identity :: Yellow Wallpaper essays

National Identity and The Yellow Wallpaper Gilman is an author whose writing is based on individuals making up America's collective identity. "The Yellow Wallpaper" is from the vantage points of being a woman, at a time when women were not supposed to have individual thoughts and personalities. At this time in history, the social roles of women were very well-defined: mothers and caretakers of the family, prim and proper creatures that were pleasant to look at, seen but not heard, and irrational and emotional. The identity of women were presupposed on them by men. At the time this story was written, social criticisms were on the rise and writers had more of an outlet to express themselves. Women's suffrage provided by many female writers, such as Gilman, the means to air the wrongs against women. The main character (a sort of parallel to Gilman herself) experiences post-partem depression, and at this point in time, there was no knowledge of this condition. It was generally thought that the nervous condition suffered by women after birth was caused by a weak moral/mental state. The narrator's husband, John takes her to an old, gothic house, away from all the care and stress of the world. This is supposed to be for her own good. To get some rest and to heal her "weak" mind, she lies in bed, almost locked in her room, left to stare at this ugly, yellow wallpaper. The ugliness of the wallpaper begins to consume her mind as the room turns more into a prison than a place of healing. The main character's though processes become apparent as the story progresses. When she first talks of the pattern, she only describes the pattern and the color briefly: "I never saw a worse paper in my life. One of those sprawling, flamboyant pattern committing every artistic sin... The color is repell ent, almost revolting..." But the pattern becomes more detailed-- in a sense, she has given the pattern life: "Looked at in one way, each breadth stands alone; the bloated curves and flourishes- a kind of 'debased Romanesque' with delirium tremens- go waddling up and down in isolated columns of fatuity." As she begins to pay more attention to detail, her mind starts becoming more and more unstable. However, with this deterioration comes her realization of the situation she is in. At the end of the story, it is evident that the woman trapped in the wallpaper represents the main character-- she has started to talk in first person: "'I've got out at last,' said I, 'in spite of you and Jane.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Middle East Conflict from a Palestinian Perspective

The Middle East conflict that exists between Palestinian Arabs and Israeli Jews began comparatively not so long ago, in particular at the beginning of the 20th century. This is true that these two nations have different religions; however, their religious differences are not the main cause of the conflict. For the most part their conflict is a struggle over land. To understand the origin of the struggle one should recall in what way Jewish people established their state.By 1929, 156,000 Jewish settlers resided in Palestine. About 4 percent of Palestine land was in the ownership of these settlers but this small amount of land comprised near 14 percent of all agricultural land. The way these lands were acquired by Jews brought about much controversy and dispute. Absentee landlords owned the land of many villages where Palestinians had lived, worked, and died. Zionists then purchased the villages from the absentee landlords and evicted the inhabitants. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isra eli)The violence and military actions that increased more and more together with the failure to conciliate Arab and Jewish peoples urged the world community to pull apart these belligerent powers. Thus in 1947 the UN General Assembly ratified the 1947 UN Partition Plan according to which the territory was divided into two states, Jewish and Arab. However, it did not bring expected peace to the area. Immediately following the adoption of the Partition Plan the Arab leadership rejected the plan. The basic reason for rejection was that two parts of the divided territory were equal. On this background almost a year later only one state was proclaimed and it was Israel.After the war of 1948-49, the territory known before as Palestine was split into three parts, the proclaimed state of Israel, the West Bank (of the Jordan River) and the Gaza Strip.The establishment of Jewish state on the Palestinian territory was historically and religiously grounded. Jewish people asserted that this land belonged to them by the biblical promise to Abraham and his descendants, and also they pointed to the fact that this was the historical site of the Jewish kingdom of Israel.Palestinian Arabs' in their turn maintain that land belonged to them as they lived there for centuries and they represented the demographic majority. What concerns the biblical explanation for Jewish land claim Arabs also state that while Ishmael, who was Abraham’s son, is the forefather of the Arabs, then the land promised by God to the children of Abraham must belong to Arabs as well. Thus, from the point of view of religion and history the position of Palestinian and Jews in regard to the land may be considered as equitable.  However, as it was mentioned above the core of the conflict is the land possession and Palestinians rejected the equal land division.The surrounding Arab states supported the Palestinian Arabs in rejecting both the Partition Plan and the establishment of Israel, and the armies o f six Arab nations attacked the newly formed State of Israel. The world has divided into the states that support Israel in its war with Palestine and the states which supported Palestine. Thus the local conflict turned into the global problem.This confrontation lasts up till now and influences the variety of fields in international relations. However, we observe here this conflict only in two aspects. That is its consequences in the context of struggle for energy carriers and in the context of dividing the world into two â€Å"camps†.As it is known the majority of world energy carriers, in particular oil, are controlled by Arab countries. These countries tried to use this factor as the impact factor on the countries that supported Israel in the military confrontation. Thus, in October, 1973, the Arab oil-producing states imposed production restraints and an embargo–their second such attempt. They did so allegedly as a punishment for those countries that supported Israe l in the Middle East war earlier that month. Their first effort at embargo occurred in 1967, following the lightning Israeli victory in the June Six-Day War. That episode is not well-known because it was a total failure. However, global oil market conditions would change substantially in subsequent years. (USA Today, 16+)The second consequence of this conflict was the division of the world into two camps. So, as it is known, Muslims of the world supported Palestine, the USA and some of European countries supported Israel. The implications of this conflict are also burdened by the fact that this division was not simply between different views this was the division of cultures and religions. Some extremists are trying hard to present this conflict as a conflict between Muslim and Christian worlds. We cannot of course assert that the opposition between Jews and Palestinians is the cause of world confrontation; nevertheless, it remains the constant irritant and booster for new conflicts .To conclude with, I suppose that the development of confrontation between Israel and Palestine could have been avoided. Since the reason of the conflict was the land division when the state of Israel was proclaimed, I think that one could not have established the state of Israel having been governed only by the simple principle of equal land division. This principle satisfied Israel but it was unsatisfactory for the Palestinians. In the given situation the world community chose the easier way without showing willingness to find out the essence of disagreement. The principle 50/50 proved to be fallacious. This confrontation should be a lesson for the world community that only through considering the interests of all parties we may reach the peace.Endnotes:1. Losman, Donald â€Å"Oil Is Not a National Security Issue: â€Å"†¦ America Steadfastly Clings to Perceptions Formed in the 1970s, and National Policies Continue to Reflect Oil Paranoia.† USA Today. Vol. 130, Januar y 2002. 16+The article by Donald Losman was useful for my work as it helped me to see the process of how the local conflict or the conflict between two nations can grow into the global problem. This article gives the comprehensive reasoning for oil prices hike in 1970s caused by Middle East conflict. It also shows that there are side parties influencing Israeli – Palestinian relations, which support either of these belligerent powers.2. Mark Daryl Erickson, et al. An Historical Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996This book provided me with information on consequences after the state of Israel proclamation and their impact on world policy, the role which it played for world polarization. The book gives the deep analysis for various reasons that led to the Middle East conflict and presents the historical perspective of its development. It helped me to shaper my own ideas on this problem.1. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved on 24 Jan . 2006 fromhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IsraelisThe Wikipedia web page was useful in terms of history and general background information about the modern settlement of Jewish people on Palestinians territory. There was also the information about the origin of the conflict between these two nations and the history of establishing the state of Israel.Works cited list:Losman, Donald â€Å"Oil Is Not a National Security Issue: â€Å"†¦ America Steadfastly Clings to Perceptions Formed in the 1970s, and National Policies Continue to Reflect Oil Paranoia.† USA Today. Vol. 130, January 2002. 16+Mark Daryl Erickson, et al. An Historical Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Westport, CT: Greenwood,  1996Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved on 24 Jan. 2006 from

Monday, January 6, 2020

How to Open and Read a GEDCOM File

One of the most common methods used to exchange genealogical information is a GEDCOM file, an acronym for GEnealogical Data COMmunication. In simple terms, GEDCOM is a method of formatting your family tree data into a text file which can be easily read and converted by any genealogy software program. The GEDCOM specification was originally developed in 1985 and is owned and managed by the Family History Department of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. GEDCOM is 5.5 and 5.5.1 (legacy GEDCOM) are no longer maintained as development continues on GEDCOM X.   Using GEDCOM Almost all major genealogy software packages and websites — including Reunion, Ancestral Quest, My Family Tree, and others — both read and write to the GEDCOM standard, although most of those tools also have their own proprietary formats. Depending on the GEDCOM version and the version of any given genealogy software program, you might encounter some standards problems that lead to imperfect interoperability. For example, Program X might not support a few tags that Program Y supports, so some data loss might occur. Youll want to check each programs technical specifications to see if and how it differs from the GEDCOM standard. Anatomy of a Genealogy GEDCOM File If you open a GEDCOM file using your word  processor, youll see a jumble of numbers, abbreviations, and bits and pieces of data. There are no blank lines and no indentations in a GEDCOM file. Thats because it is a specification for exchanging information from one computer to another and was never intended to be read as a text file. GEDCOMs basically take your family information and translate it into an outline format. Records in a GEDCOM file are arranged in groups of lines that hold information about one individual (INDI) or one family (FAM) and each line in an individual record has a level number. The first line of every record is numbered zero to show that it is the beginning of a new record. Within that record, different level numbers are subdivisions of the next level above it. For example, the birth of an individual may be given level No. 1 and further information about the birth (date, place, etc.) would be given level No. 2. After the level number, you will see a descriptive tag, which refers to the type of data contained in that line. Most tags are obvious — BIRT for birth and PLAC for place — but some are a little more obscure, such as BARM for Bar Mitzvah. A simple example of GEDCOM records: 0 I2 INDI 1 NAME Charles Phillip /Ingalls/ 1 SEX M1 BIRT2 DATE 10 JAN 18362 PLAC Cuba, Allegheny, NY1 DEAT2 DATE 08 JUN 19022 PLAC De Smet, Kingsbury, Dakota Territory1 FAMC F21 FAMS F30 I3 INDI1 NAME Caroline Lake /Quiner/1 SEX F1 BIRT2 DATE 12 DEC 18392 PLAC Milwaukee Co., WI1 DEAT2 DATE 20 APR 19232 PLAC De Smet, Kingsbury, Dakota Territory1 FAMC F211 FAMS F3 Tags can also serve as pointers — for example, I2 — which indicate a related individual, family or source within the same GEDCOM file. For example, a family record (FAM) will contain pointers to the individual records (INDI) for the husband, wife, and children. Here is the family record that contains Charles and Caroline, the two individuals discussed above: 0 F3 FAM1 HUSB I21 WIFE I31 MARR2 DATE 01 FEB 18602 PLAC Concord, Jefferson, WI1 CHIL I11 CHIL I421 CHIL I441 CHIL I451 CHIL I47 A GEDCOM is basically a connected web of records with pointers that keep all of the relationships straight. While you should now be able to decipher a GEDCOM with a text editor, you will still find it much easier to read with the appropriate software. GEDCOMs contain two additional pieces: A header section (led by the line  0 HEAD) with metadata about the file; the header is the very first section of the file. The final line — called a  trailer — indicates the end of the file. It simply reads  0 TRLR. How to Open and Read a GEDCOM File Opening a GEDCOM file is usually straightforward. Begin by ensuring that the file is truly a genealogy GEDCOM file and not a family tree file created in some proprietary format by a  genealogy software program. A file is in GEDCOM format when it ends in the extension .ged. If the file ends with the extension .zip then it has been zipped (compressed) and needs to be unzipped first.   Back up your existing genealogy databases, then open the file (or import it) with your software. How to Save Your Family Tree as a GEDCOM File All major family tree software programs support the creation of GEDCOM files. Creating a GEDCOM file does not overwrite your existing data or change your existing file in any way. Instead, a new file is generated by a process called exporting. Exporting a GEDCOM file is easy to do with any family tree software by following the basic instructions offered in the software help tool. Remove private information such as birth dates and  Social Security numbers  for people in your family tree who are still living in order to protect their privacy.   List of Tags The GEDCOM 5.5 standard supports quite a few different tags and indicators: ABBR  {ABBREVIATION} A short name of a title, description or name. ADDR  {ADDRESS} The contemporary place, usually required for postal purposes, of an individual, a submitter of information, a repository, a business, a school or a company. ADR1  {ADDRESS1} The first line of an address. ADR2  {ADDRESS2} The second line of an address. ADOP  {ADOPTION} Pertaining to the creation of a child-parent relationship that does not exist biologically. AFN  {AFN} A unique permanent record file number of an individual record stored in Ancestral File. AGE  {AGE} The age of the individual at the time an event occurred or the age listed in the document. AGNC  {AGENCY} The institution or individual having the authority or responsibility to manage or govern ALIA  {ALIAS} An indicator to link different record descriptions of a person who may be the same person. ANCE  {ANCESTORS} Pertaining to forbearers of an individual. ANCI  {ANCES_INTEREST} Indicates an interest in additional research for ancestors of this individual. (See also DESI) ANUL  {ANNULMENT} Declaring a marriage void from the beginning (never existed). ASSO  {ASSOCIATES} An indicator to link friends, neighbors, relatives, or associates of an individual. AUTH  {AUTHOR} The name of the individual who created or compiled information. BAPL  {BAPTISM-LDS} The event of baptism performed at age eight or later by priesthood authority of the LDS Church. (See also BAPM, next) BAPM  {BAPTISM} The event of baptism (not LDS), performed in infancy or later. (See also  BAPL, above, and CHR.) BARM  {BAR_MITZVAH} The ceremonial event held when a Jewish boy reaches age 13. BASM  {BAS_MITZVAH} The ceremonial event held when a Jewish girl reaches age 13, also known as Bat Mitzvah. BIRT  {BIRTH} The event of entering into life. BLES  {BLESSING} A religious event of bestowing divine care or intercession. Sometimes given in connection with a naming ceremony. BLOB  {BINARY_OBJECT} A grouping of data used as input to a multimedia system that processes binary data to represent images, sound, and video. BURI  {BURIAL} The event of the proper disposing of the mortal remains of a deceased person. CALN  {CALL_NUMBER} The number used by a repository to identify the specific items in its collections. CAST  {CASTE} The name of an individuals rank or status in society, based on racial or religious differences, or differences in wealth, inherited rank, profession, occupation, etc. CAUS  {CAUSE} A description of the cause of the associated event or fact, such as the cause of death. CENS  {CENSUS} The event of the periodic count of the population for a designated locality, such as a  national or state  census. CHAN  {CHANGE} Indicates a change, correction or modification. Typically used in connection with a DATE to specify when a change in information occurred. CHAR  {CHARACTER} An indicator of the character set used in writing this automated information. CHIL  {CHILD} The natural, adopted or sealed (LDS) child of a father and a mother. CHR  {CHRISTENING} The religious event (not LDS) of baptizing or naming a child. CHRA  {ADULT_CHRISTENING} The religious event (not LDS) of baptizing or naming an adult person. CITY  {CITY} A lower level jurisdictional unit. Normally an incorporated municipal unit. CONC  {CONCATENATION} An indicator that additional data belongs to the superior value. The information from the CONC value is to be connected to the value of the superior preceding line without a space and without a carriage return or newline character. Values that are split for a CONC tag must always be split at a non-space. If the value is split on a space the space will be lost when concatenation takes place. This is because of the treatment that spaces get as a GEDCOM delimiter, many GEDCOM values are trimmed of trailing spaces and some systems look for the first non-space starting after the tag to determine the beginning of the value. CONF  {CONFIRMATION} The religious event (not LDS) of conferring the gift of the Holy Ghost and, among protestants, full church membership. CONL  {CONFIRMATION_L} The religious event by which a person receives membership in the LDS Church. CONT  {CONTINUED} An indicator that additional data belongs to the superior value. The information from the CONT value is to be connected to the value of the superior preceding line with a carriage return or newline character. Leading spaces could be important to the formatting of the resultant text. When importing values from CONT lines the reader should assume only one delimiter character following the CONT tag. Assume that the rest of the leading spaces are to be a part of the value. COPR  {COPYRIGHT} A statement that accompanies data to protect it from unlawful duplication and distribution. CORP  {CORPORATE} A name of an institution, agency, corporation or company. CREM  {CREMATION} Disposal of the remains of a persons body by fire. CTRY  {COUNTRY} The name or code of the country. DATA  {DATA} Pertaining to stored automated information. DATE  {DATE} The time of an event in a calendar format. DEAT  {DEATH} The event when mortal life terminates. DESC  {DESCENDANTS} Pertaining to the offspring of an individual. DESI  {DESCENDANT_INT} Indicates an interest in research to identify additional descendants of this individual. (See also ANCI) DEST  {DESTINATION} A system receiving data. DIV  {DIVORCE} An event of dissolving a marriage through civil action. DIVF  {DIVORCE_FILED} An event of filing for a divorce by a spouse. DSCR  {PHY_DESCRIPTION} The physical characteristics of a person, place or thing. EDUC  {EDUCATION} Indicator of a level of education attained. EMIG  {EMIGRATION} An event of leaving ones homeland with the intent of residing elsewhere. ENDL  {ENDOWMENT} A religious event where an endowment ordinance for an individual was performed by priesthood authority in an LDS temple. ENGA  {ENGAGEMENT} An event of recording or announcing an agreement between two people to become married. EVEN  {EVENT} A noteworthy happening related to an individual, a group or an organization. FAM  {FAMILY} Identifies a legal, common law or other customary relationship of man and woman and their children, if any, or a family created by virtue of the birth of a child to its biological father and mother. FAMC  {FAMILY_CHILD} Identifies the family in which an individual appears as a child. FAMF  {FAMILY_FILE} Pertaining to, or the name of, a family file. Names stored in a file that is assigned to a family for doing temple ordinance work. FAMS  {FAMILY_SPOUSE} Identifies the family in which an individual appears as a spouse. FCOM  {FIRST_COMMUNION} A religious rite, the first act of sharing in the Lords supper as part of church worship. FILE  {FILE} An information storage place that is ordered and arranged for preservation and reference. FORM  {FORMAT} An assigned name given to a consistent format in which information can be conveyed. GEDC  {GEDCOM} Information about the use of GEDCOM in a transmission. GIVN  {GIVEN_NAME} A given or earned name used for official identification of a person. GRAD  {GRADUATION} An event of awarding educational diplomas or degrees to individuals. HEAD  {HEADER} Identifies information pertaining to an entire GEDCOM transmission. HUSB  {HUSBAND} An individual in the family role of a married man or father. IDNO  {IDENT_NUMBER} A number assigned to identify a person within some significant external system. IMMI  {IMMIGRATION} An event of entering into a new locality with the intent of residing there. INDI  {INDIVIDUAL} A person. INFL  {TempleReady} Indicates if an INFANT—data is Y (or N). LANG  {LANGUAGE} The name of the language used in a communication or transmission of information. LEGA  {LEGATEE} A role of an individual acting as a person receiving a bequest or legal devise. MARB  {MARRIAGE_BANN} An event of an official public notice given that two people intend to marry. MARC  {MARR_CONTRACT} An event of recording a formal agreement of marriage, including the prenuptial agreement in which marriage partners reach an agreement about the property rights of one or both, securing property to their children. MARL  {MARR_LICENSE} An event of obtaining a legal license to marry. MARR  {MARRIAGE} A legal, common-law or customary event of creating a family unit of a man and a woman as husband and wife. MARS  {MARR_SETTLEMENT} An event of creating an agreement between two people contemplating  marriage, at which time they agree to release or modify property rights that would otherwise arise from the marriage. MEDI  {MEDIA} Identifies information about the media or having to do with the medium in which information is stored. NAME  {NAME} A word or combination of words used to help identify an individual, title or other items. More than one NAME line should be used for people who were known by multiple names. NATI  {NATIONALITY} The national heritage of an individual. NATU  {NATURALIZATION} The event of obtaining  citizenship. NCHI  {CHILDREN_COUNT} The number of children that this person is known to be the parent of (all marriages) when subordinate to an individual, or that belong to this family when subordinate to a FAM_RECORD. NICK  {NICKNAME} A descriptive or familiar that is used instead of, or in addition to, ones proper name. NMR  {MARRIAGE_COUNT} The number of times this person has participated in a family as a spouse or parent. NOTE  {NOTE} Additional information provided by the submitter for understanding the enclosing data. NPFX  {NAME_PREFIX} Text which appears on a name line before the given and surname parts of a name. i.e. (Lt. Cmndr.) Joseph /Allen/ jr. NSFX  {NAME_SUFFIX} Text which appears on a name line after or behind the given and surname parts of a name. i.e. Lt. Cmndr. Joseph /Allen/ (jr.) In this example jr. is considered as the name suffix portion OBJE  {OBJECT} Pertaining to a grouping of attributes used in describing something. Usually referring to the data required to represent a multimedia object, such as an audio recording, a photograph of a person or an image of a document. OCCU  {OCCUPATION} The type of work or profession of an individual. ORDI  {ORDINANCE} Pertaining to a religious ordinance in general. ORDN  {ORDINATION} A religious event of receiving authority to act in religious matters. PAGE  {PAGE} A number or description to identify where information can be found in a referenced work. PEDI  {PEDIGREE} Information pertaining to an individual to parent lineage chart. PHON  {PHONE} A unique number assigned to access a specific telephone. PLAC  {PLACE} A jurisdictional name to identify the place or location of an event. POST  {POSTAL_CODE} A code used by a postal service to identify an area to facilitate mail handling. PROB  {PROBATE} An event of judicial determination of the  validity of a will. May indicate several related court activities over several dates. PROP  {PROPERTY} Pertaining to possessions such as real estate or other property of interest. PUBL  {PUBLICATION} Refers to when or where a work was published or created. QUAY  {QUALITY_OF_DATA} An assessment of the certainty of the evidence to support the conclusion drawn from evidence. Values: [0|1|2|3] REFN  {REFERENCE} A description or number used to identify an item for filing, storage or other reference purposes. RELA  {RELATIONSHIP} A relationship value between the indicated contexts. RELI  {RELIGION} A religious denomination to which a person is affiliated or for which a record applies. REPO  {REPOSITORY} An institution or person that has the specified item as part of their collection(s) RESI  {RESIDENCE} The act of dwelling at an address for a period of time. RESN  {RESTRICTION} A processing indicator signifying access to information has been denied or otherwise restricted. RETI  {RETIREMENT} An event of exiting an occupational relationship with an employer after a qualifying time period. RFN  {REC_FILE_NUMBER} A permanent number assigned to a record that uniquely identifies it within a known file. RIN  {REC_ID_NUMBER} A number assigned to a record by an originating automated system that can be used by a receiving system to report results pertaining to that record. ROLE  {ROLE} A name given to a role played by an individual in connection with an event. SEX  {SEX} Indicates the sex of an individual — male or female. SLGC  {SEALING_CHILD} A religious event pertaining to the sealing of a child to his or her parents in an LDS temple ceremony. SLGS  {SEALING_SPOUSE} A religious event pertaining to the sealing of a husband and wife in an LDS temple ceremony. SOUR  {SOURCE} The initial or original material from which information was obtained. SPFX  {SURN_PREFIX} A name piece used as a non-indexing pre-part of a surname. SSN  {SOC_SEC_NUMBER} A number assigned by the United States Social Security Administration. Used for tax identification purposes. STAE  {STATE} A geographical division of a larger jurisdictional area, such as a state within the United States of America. STAT  {STATUS} An assessment of the state or condition of something. SUBM  {SUBMITTER} An individual or organization who contributes genealogical data to a file or transfers it to someone else. SUBN  {SUBMISSION} Pertains to a collection of data issued for processing. SURN  {SURNAME} A family name passed on or used by members of a family. TEMP  {TEMPLE} The name or code that represents the name of a temple of the LDS Church. TEXT  {TEXT} The exact wording found in an original source document. TIME  {TIME} A time value in a 24-hour clock format, including hours, minutes, and optional seconds, separated by a colon (:). Fractions of seconds are shown in decimal notation. TITL  {TITLE} A description of a specific writing or other work, such as the title of a book when used in a source context, or a formal designation used by an individual in connection with positions of royalty or another social status, such as Grand Duke. TRLR  {TRAILER} At level 0, specifies the end of a GEDCOM transmission. TYPE  {TYPE} A further qualification to the meaning of the associated superior tag. The value does not have any computer processing reliability. It is more in the form of a short one- or two-word note that should be displayed any time the associated data is displayed. VERS  {VERSION} Indicates which version of a product, item, or publication is being used or referenced. WIFE  {WIFE} An individual in the role as a mother or married woman. WILL  {WILL} A legal document treated as an event, by which a person disposes of his or her estate, to take effect after death. The event date is the date the  will  was signed while the person was alive. (See also PROB)